< Glossary of frequently-used textile, manufacturing, development, production, and commercial shipping terms in the apparel industry.

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Glossary of frequently-used textile, manufacturing, development, production, and commercial shipping terms in the apparel industry.



A sewn-in panel or section of the exterior fabric that faces inward, toward the body, and provides a clean-finished edge, a finished opening or prevents seeing the interior construction of a garment.


(Free Alongside Ship…port of loading) The buyer bears all the transportation costs and the risk of loss of goods. Normally, buyers use their freight forwarder to clear the goods for export. Delivery is completed when the goods are turned over to the buyer’s forwarder for insurance and transportation.

Fiber Content

The specific percentages, by fiber, used in constructing (weaving, knitting, etc.) the outer or “fashion fabric” of a garment. This is required by the U.S. government to appear on a label along with the Care and Country of Origin.

Filament Yarn

A relatively continuous length of fiber, usually manmade, created through an “extrusion process” where plastic materials are forced through small apertures (spinnerets) and then solidified into filaments. Silk is a natural form of a filament.

Finish (Fabric)

Refers to any special or customer-designated finishes or treatments.


A converter who “finishes” a textile before use: brushing, glazing, napping, water-repellence, etc.

Fit Model

An individual whose general body measurements reflect the standard or sample size designated for development or production of a garment. Garments are tested on a Fit Model in order to check style, fit, movement and comfort issues, before continuing on to production.


Those characteristics of a material that pertain to its ease of ignition and ability to sustain combustion. Flammability is of particular concern in children’s and sleepwear or special uniforms.


Flat Knitting

Knitting on a single or double needle bed machine. A “carriage” carries the yarns back and forth across the knitting bed and forms the loop-like stitches needle-by-needle. Flat bed knitting can be more versatile and may have the ability to fully fashion a garment, but it is considerably slower than circular knitting.


Detailed design sketches used in product development that include front and back views as well as special details and treatments. Flats often include measurements indicating placement of details and exact proportions. Flats represent the garment as if laid flat on a table or hung on a wall to create a working diagram of the garment, without artistic expression or flourishes.


A warp or weft knitted textile that has loops or floats on one or both surfaces that are bushed in the finishing for a plush effect. Fleece can be made from a variety of natural and manmade fibers. When unbrushed it is called french terry.

Float Jacquard

A fancy knit structure involving a multicolored pattern or design. The various yarn colors are carried on the back of the knit fabric (floats) until they are knitted into the design on the surface. Float jacquard is less bulky and firm as than double jacquard.

Floor Ready

Referring to merchandise that is received ready to be placed directly on the selling floor.

Fly closure

One-Piece Fly - The fly facing is an extension of the body, folded back to form a fly or lapped zipper application. The fly extension is single ply, usually over-edge finished.

Two-Piece-Fly – A separate piece is used to form a fly or lapped zipper application. The fly extension is double ply with a fold at the outside edge.

French Fly – An extension added to the right side fly stand to allow for an additional button and buttonhole on the inside waistband.


(Free on Board…port of loading) A term of sale that defines who is to incur transportation charges for the shipment; who is to control the movement of the shipment; or where the title to the goods passes to the buyer/purchaser.

Folder (Operation)

A labor saving attachment on a sewing machine that folds various layers of fabric and components together during the assembly process, eliminating the machine operator from manually producing the effect, such as: seam binding, placket attachment, flat-felling seams and hemming.

Free Alongside Ship

See: FAS

Free on Board

See: FOB

Freight Allowance

The amount (%) of freight the supplier or retailer pays per PO based on a Freight Partnership Contract.

Freight Chargeback

A supplier’s freight deduction document; the two types of freight chargebacks are:

Agreement – Supplier agrees to participate in sharing freight charges.

Violation – Supplier is charged for full freight charges plus a handling fee. Violation is usually either of Purchase Order contract or the indicated carrier or routing selection.

Freight-Only Invoice

An invoice for prepaid freight charges sent to the DC.

Full Freight

The supplier/shipper agrees to pay 100% of the freight charges.

Fully Fashioned

A knitting term indicating that each section of the garment is “fashioned” or shaped to its finished dimensions for every size in the range. Usually the garment sections are then “linked” or “looped” together to finish. A Fully-Fashioned garment wastes very little yarn, often an important cost factor.

Fashioning Marks

A knitting term indicating the marks that fully-fashioned garments usually have near the seams, indicating where the individual panels were knitted to shape. See: Fully-Fashioned above.


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